Description of Individual Course Units
Course Unit CodeCourse Unit TitleType of Course UnitYear of StudySemesterNumber of ECTS Credits
10721402T11310RESEARCH ON AMPHORAElective364
Level of Course Unit
First Cycle
Objectives of the Course
Amphoras carrying agricultural productions which constitute the basis of commerce in antiquity are significant as evidence for the history of economy. Because of the importance and variety of these jars, amphorology forms a special topic in classical archeology. In this course, the amphoras produced and used from the 3rd millenium BC to the Byzantine Period are studied chronologically, their contents are discussed and typological researches are made. Besides, production technics, forms of transporting via sea, river and land and their usage in various purposes are pointed out. The stamps and marks appearing on the amphoras in Classical, Hellenistic and Roman Periods are introduced and the quality and the production of goods carried in them are mentioned.
Name of Lecturer(s)
Prof. Dr. Gonca Şenol
Learning Outcomes
1 To recognize the origin of the word “amphora” and the earliest double handled jars used as transportation vessels in Mediterranean commerce.
2 To learn about the production of amphoras, workshops, clays, clay inclusions. To identify the secondary usage of complete and fragmentary amphoras. To get knowledge on amphora stamps and system of stamping jars.
3 To understand the economic and commercial roles of amhoras. To comprehend amphoras as an evidence for trade in ancient economy, the quality of commerce (imported and exported goods), ancient trade routes.
4 To learn about the amphoras of important Grek amphora producer centers, typologies, contents (wine, oliveoil, salted fish and fish sauces, etc.), production periods and capacities. To get information on the production centers and dispersion of their amphoras.
5 To get knowledge on Roman and Byzantine amphoras, typologies, production periods and centers, contents and production capacities. To understand their distributions and diversities in Eastern and Western commerce.
6 To have knowledge on the production of wine, olive oil, salted fish and fish sauce and the workshops related to these activities.
7 Having ability on making research in library and on internet.
8 Having ability of writing a presentation by applying his/her knowledge on a subject previously learned and studied
Mode of Delivery
Face to Face
Prerequisites and co-requisities
Recommended Optional Programme Components
Course Contents
Origin, typology, production technics and phases of amphoras which have used for the transportation of commercial goods since the 3rd millenium BC. are discussed. The quality of goods carried in them and the workshops for producing them are also the subjects of this course. While amphoras and the quality of their contents light the ancient economy, commercial activities between centers and the assesment of production and consumption centers are made.
Weekly Detailed Course Contents
0Introduction to the course: Contents, importance of the subject and presentation of the bibliographyMeeting and definition of the course intends
1Appearance of commercial amphoras, the origin of the word “amphora”, identification of the form of amphora, the earliest amphoras. Reading (E. Doğer, p. 7-14; G. C. Şenol, p. 7-10)
2Tthe production technic and phases of commercial amphora production, amphora workshops and kilns.Reading (E. Doğer, p. 65-71; Sicillano, Sibella 1994, p. 12-13)
3Goods transported in commercial amphoras (wine, olive oil, salted fish and fish sauces, etc.), their archaeological and ancient literary evidence and marketing technics of productions.Reading (G. C. Şenol 2009, p. 10-19; G. C. Şenol 2006, p. 24-28; E. Doğer, p. 30-38)
4Production of wine, olive oil, salted fish and fish sauces, etc. in antiquity and their production technics and workshops. Reading (Sciallano 1997, p. 29-51; Amoureth, p. 75-85)
5Greek amphoras (significant production centers and amphora typologies) Reading (A.K. Şenol 2009, p. 36-58; Empereur-Hesnard 1987, p. 9-23)
6Observation of olie oil production in a workshop (studying area: Olive oil wokshop in Klazomenai/ Urla)Practice (Land practice)
7Midterm exam
8Technics of isolating amphoras: isolation treatments during and ater production stage and related evidenceReading (E. Doğer, p. 39-47; Sciallano, Sibella, p. 13-14)
9Transportation of amphoras via land and sea/river. Ancient sea/maritime and land trade routes. Reading (E. Doğer, p. 51-59; Sicillano, Sibella, s. 7-8)
10Storage of amphoras, filling of goods in and pouring of goods from amphoras. Secondary usage of amphoras and utilization of amphoras for varied purposes (Greek and Egyptian examples) Reading (E. Doğer, p. 59-65; Sicillano, Sibella, p. 15-17)
11Amphora production, production centers, forms and carried goods in the Roman Republic and Imperial Periods.Reading (A. K. Şenol, p. 59-84; Sicilliano, Sibella, p. 108-111)
12Marks on amphoras, contents and purposes (amphora stamps, dipinti and grafiti: greek city states and Roman amphora stamps) Reading (G. C. Şenol, p. 17-30 Sicillano, Sibella, p. 20-22)
13Presentation of seminar Presentation of seminar
14Presentation of seminar Presentation of seminar
15Final exam
Recommended or Required Reading
Ders Kitabı: A. K. Şenol (ed), AETAM (Arslan Eyce Taşucu Amphora Müzesi)’da Bulunan Ticari Amphoralar ve Akdeniz’de Ticaretin İzleri, Silifke, 2009. J.-Y., Empereur, A., Hesnard, “Les amphores hellénistiques”, Céramiques Hellénistiques et Romaines II, pp. 17-71. E. Doğer, Antik Çağda Amphoralar, Sergi Yayınevi, 1990 M. Siciallano, P. Sibella, Amphores: Comment les identifier?, Aix-en-Provence, 1994. M. Siciallano, Poisson de l’antiquité, Istres, 1997. G. C.-Şenol, Klasik ve Hellenistik Dönem’de Mühürlü Amphora Üreten Merkezler ve Mühürleme Sistemleri, Ege Yayınları, İstanbul, 2006. G. C. Şenol, “Antik Dönemde Amphora Kullanımı”, AETAM (Arslan Eyce Taşucu Amphora Müzesi)’da Bulunan Ticari Amphoralar ve Akdeniz’de Ticaretin İzleri, (A. K. Şenol, ed.) Silifke, 2009. Yardımcı Kitaplar: A.K. Şenol, Marmaris Müzesi Ticari Amphoraları, T.C. Kültür Bakanlığı, Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara, 2003. W.D.E., Coulson, N.C., Wilkie, J.W., Rehard, “Amphoras from Naukratis and Environs”, BCH Suppl XIII, Recherches sur les amphores grecques, éd. J.-Y. Empereur, Y. Garlan, Paris, Paris, 1986, pp. 535-550. J.-Y., Empereur, M., Picon, “A la recherche des fours d’amphores”, BCH Suppl. XIII, Recherches sur les amphores grecques, éd. J.-Y. Empereur, Y. Garlan, Paris, 1986, pp. 105-126. V., Grace, “Wine Jars”, The Classical Journal, Volume XLII, No. 8, May 1947, pp. 443-452. V., Grace, “Standard Pottery Containers of the Ancient Greek World”, Hesperia VIII, Princeton, 1949, pp. 175-189. E. Doğer, Antik Çağda Bağ ve Şarap, İstanbul 2004. M.C. Amoureth, “Vin, vinaigre, piquette dans l'antiquité”, Le Vin des Historiens, s.75-85. Web sites:
Planned Learning Activities and Teaching Methods
Activities are given in detail in the section of "Assessment Methods and Criteria" and "Workload Calculation"
Assessment Methods and Criteria
Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
End Of Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
Language of Instruction
Work Placement(s)
Workload Calculation
ActivitiesNumberTime (hours)Total Work Load (hours)
Midterm Examination122
Final Examination122
Attending Lectures16232
Team/Group Work212
Individual Study for Homework Problems5315
Individual Study for Mid term Examination11010
Individual Study for Final Examination11111
Contribution of Learning Outcomes to Programme Outcomes
LO1 3   3  5 
LO2 3      5 
LO35 4   4 5 
LO45 4   4 5 
LO5    5 4 5 
LO6   4   55 
LO7        5 
* Contribution Level : 1 Very low 2 Low 3 Medium 4 High 5 Very High
Ege University, Bornova - İzmir / TURKEY • Phone: +90 232 311 10 10 • e-mail: