Description of Individual Course Units
Course Unit CodeCourse Unit TitleType of Course UnitYear of StudySemesterNumber of ECTS Credits
9101027142015Evolution of Cryptogams and New Approaches in Systematics of CryptogamsElective126
Level of Course Unit
Second Cycle
Objectives of the Course
The aim is to: a. explain the principles in the systematics of Amoebozoa, Opistokonta, Archaeplastida, Excavata, Straminopiles (Harcobia and Harosa), Alveolata and Rhizaria in details. b. educate you on endosymbiosis theory; evolution of chloroplasts, mitosis, storage products, cell walls, piths and multicellularity; diversity in reproduction; morphological and physiological adaptions to land life; role of symbiosis in first land plants. c. explain the principles of molecular phylogeny, and recently used genes for building phylogeny trees. d. depict and interpret the relationships between crytogam divisions relying on paleobotanical evidences, and by phylogeny trees obtained from molecular studies.
Name of Lecturer(s)
Doç. Dr. Ayhan Şenkardeşler
Learning Outcomes
1Dominating the endosymbiosis theory
2Understanding the phylogenetic relationship of cryptogams
3Learning the traits that used for building these relationships
4Being able to comment on phylogenetic trees
5Understanding the recent systematics and providing you a view to the whole cryptogams
6Comprehending recent approaches in the systematics of cryptogams
Mode of Delivery
Face to Face
Prerequisites and co-requisities
Recommended Optional Programme Components
Course Contents
How did chloroplasts evolved from thylakoids? How did occur endosymbiosis? How did the flagella developed? How is the diversity in mitosis? How was the evolution of mitosis? These and other questions will find their answers in our course. All these changes are diverse among cryptogams, and only a few of them were transferred to land plants; each of these transfers is also a topic of this course. Finally, phylogenetic relationships between cryptogamic divisions and classes will be demonstrated, and reasons for these proposed relationships will be explained.
Weekly Detailed Course Contents
1Introduction. Terminology.
2The first microorganisms. Evolution of flagella.
3Diversity and evolution of mitosis. Evolving of nucleomorphs. Evolution of mitochondria.
4Endosymbiosis theory and the evolution of chloroplasts with two, three, four and six membranes. Evolution of thylakoid membranes. Evolution of photosynthetic pigments. Evolution of storage products.
5Evolution of plasmodesmata and formation of multicellularity. Cryptogams lacking plasmodesma. Evolution of cell wall.
6Diversity in sexual and asexual reproduction.
7Diversity of life cycles among cryptogams.
8Midterm exam.
9Fertilization models in cryptogams.
10Transition to life on land, and necessary physiological adaptations for this transition. First land plants. Types of symbiosis and the role of symbiosis during this transition.
11Evolution of transport tissue. Types of stele. Evolution of sporangia in bryophytes. Evolution of spor capsule in bryophytes. Evolution of sporangia in ferns and fern allies. Heterospory. Phylloid-enation-microphyl to leaf evolution.
12Fossil ferns and their relationship to living ferns.
13The history of systematics of cryptogams. Classic systematics of cryptogams.
14Basics of cladistics. Applicability, advantages and difficulty of cladistics.
15Moden systematics: Amoebozoa, Opistokonta, Archaeplastida, Excavata, Straminopiles (Harcobia and Harosa), Alveolata and Rhizaria. Phylocode.
16Final exam.
Recommended or Required Reading
Adl, S.M., Simpson, A.G., Lane, C.E., Lukeš, J., Bass, D., Bowser, S.S., Brown, M.W., Burki, F., Dunthorn, M., Hampl, V., Heiss, A., Hoppenrath, M., Lara, E., Le Gall, L., Lynn, D.H., McManus, H., Mitchell, E.A., Mozley-Stanridge, S.E., Parfrey, L.W., Pawlowski, J., Rueckert, S., Shadwick, R.S., Schoch, C.L., Smirnov, A., Spiegel, F.W., “The revised classification of eukaryotes”, J Eukaryot Microbiol. 59(5): 429-493 (2012). Simpson MG. “Bitki Sistematiği”, translated by Aytaç, Z., Kaptaner İğci, B., Nobel Yayın Dağıtım (2012). Van den Hoek, C., Mann D., Jahns H.M., "Algae, an Introduction to Phycology", Cambridge University Press (2002).
Planned Learning Activities and Teaching Methods
Assessment Methods and Criteria
Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
End Of Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
Language of Instruction
Work Placement(s)
Workload Calculation
ActivitiesNumberTime (hours)Total Work Load (hours)
Midterm Examination122
Final Examination122
Attending Lectures14342
Individual Study for Mid term Examination12020
Individual Study for Final Examination13030
Contribution of Learning Outcomes to Programme Outcomes
LO143  5   
LO2544 5   
LO3444 4   
LO4 555    
LO5445 5   
LO6 5 45   
* Contribution Level : 1 Very low 2 Low 3 Medium 4 High 5 Very High
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