Third Cycle Programmes
    (Doctorate Degree)
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    (Master's Degree)
First Cycle Programmes
    (Bachelor's Degree)
Short Cycle Programmes
    (Associate's Degree)
 
Third Cycle Programmes (Doctorate Degree)

Graduate School of Health Sciences - Pharmacognosy - Third Cycle Programme



General Description
History
Ege University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy was founded in 1982 and Doctor of Phylosophy (PhD)Program of Pharmacognosy Department started in this year.
Qualification Awarded
The Doctorate Degree (PhD) in Pharmacognosy awarded to the graduates who have successfully full filled all programme requirements.
Level of Qualification
Third Cycle
Specific Admission Requirements
The applicants who hold a Master's Degree and willing to enroll in the Doctorate programme may apply to the Directorate of Graduate School with the documents. 1-Sufficient score (at least 55 out of 100) from the Academic Staff and Graduate Study Education Exam (ALES) conducted by Student Selection and Placement Center (OSYM) or GRE Graduate Record Examination (GRE) score or Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) score equivalent to ALES score of 55. 2-English proficiency (at least 70 out of 100 from the Profiency Exam conducted by Ege University Foreign Language Department, or at least 55 out of 100 from ÜDS (University Language Examination conducted by OSYM) or TOEFL or IELTS score equivalent to UDS score of 55. The candidates holding Bachelor's or Master's Degree taught totally in English are exempted from English proficiency requirement. The candidates fulfilling the criteria outlined above are invited to interwiev. The assessment for admission to masters programs is based on : 50% of ALES, 15% of academic success in the undergraduate programme (cumulative grade point average (CGPA) ) 10 % of academic success in the master's programme and 25% of interview grade. The required minimum interview grade is 60 out of 100. The candidates having an assessed score of 65 at least are accepted into the Doctorate programme. The results of the evaluation are announced by the Directorate of Graduate School.
Specific Arrangements For Recognition Of Prior Learning (Formal, Non-Formal and Informal)
The rules for recognition of formal prior learning are well defined. A student who is currently enrolled in a Doctorate Degree programme in the same discipline at another institution and has successfully completed at least one semester, upon submitting all required documents before the deadline, may transfer to the Doctorate Programme at EGE University upon the recommendation of the department administration and with the approval of the Administrative Committee of the Graduate School. The decision taken will also include eligibility for exemption from some course requirements of the graduate program. Students who transfer from another university must be successful in the EGE University English Proficiency Exam or in an equivalent English examination. Recognition of prior non-formal and in-formal learning is at the beginning stage in Turkish Higher Education Institutions. Ege University is not an exception to this.
Qualification Requirements and Regulations
The doctorate programme consists of a minimum of seven courses, with a minimum of 21 national credits, a qualifying examination, a dissertation proposal, and a dissertation. The period allotted for the completion of the Doctorate programmes is normally eight semesters (four years). However, while it is possible to graduate in a shorter time, it is also possible to have an extension subject to the approval of the graduate school. The seminar course and thesis are non-credit and graded on a pass/fail basis. The total ECTS credits of the programme is 240 ECTS. A student may take undergraduate courses on the condition that the courses have not been taken during the undergraduate program. However, at most two of these courses may be counted to the Doctorate course load and credits. The PhD students are required to take the Doctoral Qualifying Examination, after having successfully completed taught courses. The examination consists of written and oral parts. The Doctoral Qualifying Committee determines by absolute majority whether a candidate has passed or failed the examination. Students who fail the Qualifying Examination may retake the examination the following semester. Students failing the Examination a second time are dismissed from the program. Students must register for thesis work and the Specialization Field course offered by his supervisor every semester following the semester, in which the supervisor is appointed. A dissertation supervisor who must hold the minimum rank of assistant professor is appointed for each PhD student. When the nature of the dissertation topic requires more than one supervisor, a joint-supervisor may be appointed. A joint-supervisor must hold a doctoral degree. Periodic monitoring of research work by a thesis monitoring committee is required to be awarded the Doctoral degree. A student who has completed work on the thesis within the time period, must write a thesis, using the data collected, according to the specifications of the Graduate School Thesis Writing Guide. The thesis must be defended in front of a jury. The thesis jury is appointed on the recommendations of the relevant Department Chairperson and with the approval of the Administrative Committee of the Graduate School. The jury is composed of the thesis supervisor and 5 faculty members. Of the appointed jury members, up to two may be selected from another Department or another University. The co-supervisor cannot be the jury member. Thesis defense by the candidate is open to all audience and a jury decides to grant/deny the Doctoral degree. A majority vote by the jury members determines the outcome of the thesis or examination. The vote can be for "acceptance", "rejection" or "correction". A student may be given, by a decision of the Administrative Committee of the Graduate School, up to six months to complete the corrections. The student must then retake the thesis examination.
Profile of The Programme
Pharmacognosy postgraduate program is established to determine the identification of herbal medicinal drugs, preparation of tea samples from herbal drugs and different pharmaceutical preparations from herbal drugs (extract, tincture etc.) to be used for medical treatment. Standardizations of the preparations through a standard substance, standardization, stabilization, qualitative and quantitative analysis, biological activity studies, interactions and biotechnological studies on herbal preparations. The aim of this program is to train experts who are included in the scope of this program and potential to reinforce the knowledge of Pharmacognosy, Also, to train the experts, equipped with theoretical and practical knowledge of pharmacognosy,
Occupational Profiles of Graduates With Examples
Education and research in universities, consulting at Ministry of Health, production, research, product development, trainer and management at pharmaceutiacl industry, pharmacy services and administration at health care institutions, pharmacy services and administration at public institutions.
Access to Further Studies
Graduates who succesfully completed doctorate degree may apply to both in the same or related disciplines in higher education institutions at home or abroad to get a position in academic staff or to governmental R&D centres to get expert position.
Examination Regulations, Assessment and Grading
Student examination and assessment methods are separately proposed detailly in “indivudual course description” for each course, being based on regular midterm exams, reports and performance in laboratory work and final examinations.
Graduation Requirements
Graduation requirements are explained in the section “Qualification Requirements and Regulations” .
Mode of Study (Full-Time, Part-Time, E-Learning )
Full-Time
Address, Programme Director or Equivalent
Ege University Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Pharmacognosy 35100 Bornova Izmir-TURKEY, Prof. Dr. Bijen KIVÇAK tel: +90232- 3113966, 3112520, 3747762
Facilities
Computer hardware that provides access to databases open for the university and for literature search. Laboratory equipments: herbarium, microscope, mill, extraction equipments, centrifuge, water baths, rotary evaporatory devices, lyophilizator,oven, precision scales, ash furnace, laminar flow hood, -80 degree deep freezer, spectrophotometer, HPLC (DAD, Uv detector) pletismometer, microplate reader, laminar flow biosafety II cabinets, autoclaves, incubators, pH meter, polarimeter, refractometer, meting degree measurement device

Key Learning Outcomes
1In the field of pharmacy, usually based on the proficiency level of postgraduate degree and along with expansion and deepening of the information of pharmacognosy, with scientific dignity, int the field of pharmacognosy, to be able to process research, detect, apply and conclude independently on an original isssue
2To be able to understand and have a systematic approach to new knowledge in the field of pharmacognosy
3To be able to earn high level of proficiency for the methods and skills in the field of pharmacognosy
4To b e capable of publishing at least a part of an original or innovative work on science with a known or a developed method in national and/or international publications
5To be able to participate in science by expanding the konwledge boundaries in the field of pharmacognosy
6To be able to manage pharmacognosy application processes and interpersonal relationships, and use skills of communication.
7To be able to plan work processes in the application areas of pharmacognosy, to be able to be a member of the team, be able to participate in collaborative studies and be able to manage these studies
8By combining the basic and appiled sciences with applicat,ion of pharmacognosy, to be able to use them in pharmacy
9To be able to combine the information from different disciplines with the information in the field of pharmacognosy, to be able to interpret, analyse and bring propoısals for solutions.
10To be able to have sufficient information and application skills for the research, development and production of active constituents and excipients of biological origin
11To be able to have sufficient information and application skills for the research, development and production of pharmaceutical preparations and medicinal products
12To be able to have sufficient information and application skills for the physical, chemical, biological, and toxicological analysis of drug active and auxiliary agents, pharmaceuti,cal preparations and medicinal products
13Prior to prescription, to be able to have necessary knowledge and be able to use the information about biologically originated drugs for the most appropriate dose, routes of administration and the incompability with the prescribed drugs
14By using the information about metabolism, indications and uses of drugs and medicinal products of biological origin, to be able to supply the appropriate prescriptions to patients
15Within the famework of pharmaceutical care and clinical pharmacy applications to provide the most appropriate way to encourage the use of biologically derived drugs, to be able to manage patient records and to be able to make counseling about drugs to patients and health stuff.
16In the field of health education, to be able to give education and be able to make counseling and supervision about biologically derived drugs
17To have sufficient knowledge and skills about the various tools, information sources and software applications required by the fields of pharmacognosy application
18Being aware of lifelong learning, in respect of pharmacognosy applications, science, technology and contemporary thought and behavior to be able to have updated information and to develop and improve these informations
19Using at least one foreign language, to be able to follw the information and developments in the areas of pharmacy practice and medicines of bilogical origin and be able to communicate with colleagues
20To be able to elucidate the structures of a new active compounds of biological origin and be able to to explain the structure activity relationships
21In the field of pharmacognosy, to be able to have knowledge and application skills of biotechnology

Key Programme Learning Outcomes - NQF for HE in Turkey
TYYÇKey Learning Outcomes
123456789101112131415161718192021
KNOWLEDGE1
2
SKILLS1
2
3
4
COMPETENCES (Competence to Work Independently and Take Responsibility)1
2
3
COMPETENCES (Learning Competence)1
COMPETENCES (Communication and Social Competence)1
2
3
COMPETENCES (Field Specific Competence)1
2
3

Course Structure Diagram with Credits
T : Theoretical P: Practice L : Laboratory
1. Semester
No Course Unit Code Course Unit Title Type of Course T P L ECTS
1 9303046032005 Chemical Content Of Higher Plants I Compulsory 4 0 0 8
2 9303046032019 Chemical Content Of Higher Plants I Compulsory 4 0 0 8
3 930304SEÇ.DR1 ELECTIVE COURSES 1 Elective - - - 14
4 930304SDG1 ELECTIVE COURSES 1 Elective - - - 14
5 9303046092012 Isolation And Purification Techniques İn Phytochemistry I Compulsory 4 0 0 8
6 9303046092019 Isolation And Purification Techniques İn Phytochemistry I Compulsory 4 0 0 8
Total 16 0 0 60
 
2. Semester
No Course Unit Code Course Unit Title Type of Course T P L ECTS
1 9303046212005 Chemical Content Of Higher Plants II Compulsory 4 0 0 8
2 9303046212019 Chemical Content Of Higher Plants II Compulsory 4 0 0 8
3 9303046202019 Chemical Content Of Higher Plants III Compulsory 4 0 0 8
4 930304SEÇ.DR2 ELECTIVE COURSES 1 Elective - - - 16
5 930304SDG2 ELECTIVE COURSES 1 Elective - - - 8
6 BAT102 Fundamentals of Scientific Research Compulsory 2 0 0 3
7 BAT102 Fundamentals of Scientific Research Compulsory 2 0 0 3
8 SBEDRSEM600 Seminar Compulsory 0 0 0 3
9 SBEDRSEM600 Seminar Compulsory 0 0 0 3
Total 16 0 0 60
 
3. Semester
No Course Unit Code Course Unit Title Type of Course T P L ECTS
1 9303046202005 Chemical Content Of Higher Plants III Compulsory 4 0 0 8
2 930304SEÇ.DR2 ELECTIVE COURSES 1 Elective - - - 17
3 930304SDG3 ELECTIVE COURSES 1 Elective - - - 25
4 SBEDRUAD601 Specialization Field Course Compulsory 0 0 0 5
5 SBEDRUAD601 Specialization Field Course Compulsory 0 0 0 5
Total 4 0 0 60
 
4. Semester
No Course Unit Code Course Unit Title Type of Course T P L ECTS
1 EBB6852017 Development and Learning Compulsory 3 0 0 4
2 930304SEÇ.DR4 ELECTIVE COURSES 1 Elective - - - 25
3 EBB6832017 Planning and Assesment in Education Compulsory 3 2 0 6
4 SBEDRYET601 Qualification Exam Compulsory 0 0 0 5
5 SBEDRUAD602 Specialization Field Course Compulsory 0 0 0 5
6 SBEDRUAD602 Specialization Field Course Compulsory 0 0 0 5
7 SBEDRTEZ601 Thesis Compulsory 0 0 0 5
8 SBEDRTO601 Thesis Proposal Compulsory 0 0 0 5
Total 6 2 0 60
 
5. Semester
No Course Unit Code Course Unit Title Type of Course T P L ECTS
1 EBB6852017 Development and Learning Compulsory 3 0 0 4
2 EBB6832017 Planning and Assesment in Education Compulsory 3 2 0 6
3 SBEDRYET601 Qualification Exam Compulsory 0 0 0 5
4 SBEDRUAD603 Specialization Field Course Compulsory 0 0 0 5
5 SBEDRUAD603 Specialization Field Course Compulsory 0 0 0 5
6 SBEDRTEZ601 Thesis Compulsory 0 0 0 15
7 SBEDRTEZ602 Thesis Compulsory 0 0 0 25
8 SBEDRTO601 Thesis Proposal Compulsory 0 0 0 5
Total 6 2 0 70
 
6. Semester
No Course Unit Code Course Unit Title Type of Course T P L ECTS
1 SBEDRUAD604 Specialization Field Course Compulsory 0 0 0 5
2 SBEDRUAD604 Specialization Field Course Compulsory 0 0 0 5
3 SBEDRTEZ602 Thesis Compulsory 0 0 0 25
4 SBEDRTEZ603 Thesis Compulsory 0 0 0 25
Total 0 0 0 60
 
7. Semester
No Course Unit Code Course Unit Title Type of Course T P L ECTS
1 SBEDRUAD605 Specialization Field Course Compulsory 0 0 0 5
2 SBEDRUAD605 Specialization Field Course Compulsory 0 0 0 5
3 SBEDRTEZ603 Thesis Compulsory 0 0 0 25
4 SBEDRTEZ604 Thesis Compulsory 0 0 0 25
Total 0 0 0 60
 
8. Semester
No Course Unit Code Course Unit Title Type of Course T P L ECTS
1 SBEDRUAD606 Specialization Field Course Compulsory 0 0 0 5
2 SBEDRUAD606 Specialization Field Course Compulsory 0 0 0 5
3 SBEDRTEZ604 Thesis Compulsory 0 0 0 25
4 SBEDRTEZ605 Thesis Compulsory 0 0 0 25
Total 0 0 0 60
 
ELECTIVE COURSES 1
No Course Unit Code Course Unit Title Type of Course T P L ECTS
1 9303046012012 Alkaloids I Elective 4 4 0 16
2 9303046042012 Product Development and Innovation in Pharmacognosy Elective 2 4 0 12
3 9303046062012 Statistical Evaluations of Pharmacognostical Studies Elective 1 0 0 2
4 9303046112012 Structure Elucidation By Spectroscopic Analysis I Elective 3 0 0 6
5 9303046142005 Bioactivity Tutorials In Pharmacognosy Elective 2 2 0 8
6 9303046152005 Importance Of Biotechnology And Its Applications İn Pharmacognosy I Elective 2 0 0 4
7 9303046162005 Isolation And Purification Techniques In Phytochemistry I Elective 0 4 0 8
8 9303046182005 Isolation And Purification Techniques In Phytochemistry II Elective 0 4 0 8
9 9303046192012 Alkaloids II Elective 4 4 0 9
10 9303046272014 Isolation And Purification Techniques İn Phytochemistry II Elective 4 0 0 8
11 9303046292012 Structure Elucidation by Spectroscopic Analysis II Elective 4 0 0 8
12 9303046332014 Importance Of Biotechnology And Its Applications İn Pharmacognosy II Elective 2 0 0 4
13 9303046402006 Structure Elucidation By Spectral Analysis IV Elective 3 0 0 6
14 9303046412006 Structure Elucidation By Spectral Analysis III Elective 3 0 0 6
ELECTIVE COURSES 1
No Course Unit Code Course Unit Title Type of Course T P L ECTS
1 9303046012012 Alkaloids I Elective 4 4 0 0
2 9303046042012 Product Development and Innovation in Pharmacognosy Elective 2 4 0 0
3 9303046062012 Statistical Evaluations of Pharmacognostical Studies Elective 1 0 0 0
4 9303046112012 Structure Elucidation By Spectroscopic Analysis I Elective 3 0 0 0
5 9303046142005 Bioactivity Tutorials In Pharmacognosy Elective 2 2 0 0
6 9303046152005 Importance Of Biotechnology And Its Applications İn Pharmacognosy I Elective 2 0 0 0
7 9303046162005 Isolation And Purification Techniques In Phytochemistry I Elective 0 4 0 0
8 9303046182005 Isolation And Purification Techniques In Phytochemistry II Elective 0 4 0 0
9 9303046192012 Alkaloids II Elective 4 4 0 0
10 9303046272014 Isolation And Purification Techniques İn Phytochemistry II Elective 4 0 0 0
11 9303046292012 Structure Elucidation by Spectroscopic Analysis II Elective 4 0 0 0
12 9303046332014 Importance Of Biotechnology And Its Applications İn Pharmacognosy II Elective 2 0 0 0
13 9303046402006 Structure Elucidation By Spectral Analysis IV Elective 3 0 0 0
14 9303046412006 Structure Elucidation By Spectral Analysis III Elective 3 0 0 0
ELECTIVE COURSES 1
No Course Unit Code Course Unit Title Type of Course T P L ECTS
1 9303046012012 Alkaloids I Elective 4 4 0 16
2 9303046042012 Product Development and Innovation in Pharmacognosy Elective 2 4 0 12
3 9303046062012 Statistical Evaluations of Pharmacognostical Studies Elective 1 0 0 2
4 9303046112012 Structure Elucidation By Spectroscopic Analysis I Elective 3 0 0 6
5 9303046142005 Bioactivity Tutorials In Pharmacognosy Elective 2 2 0 8
6 9303046152005 Importance Of Biotechnology And Its Applications İn Pharmacognosy I Elective 2 0 0 4
7 9303046162005 Isolation And Purification Techniques In Phytochemistry I Elective 0 4 0 8
8 9303046182005 Isolation And Purification Techniques In Phytochemistry II Elective 0 4 0 8
9 9303046192012 Alkaloids II Elective 4 4 0 9
10 9303046272014 Isolation And Purification Techniques İn Phytochemistry II Elective 4 0 0 8
11 9303046292012 Structure Elucidation by Spectroscopic Analysis II Elective 4 0 0 8
12 9303046332014 Importance Of Biotechnology And Its Applications İn Pharmacognosy II Elective 2 0 0 4
13 9303046402006 Structure Elucidation By Spectral Analysis IV Elective 3 0 0 6
14 9303046412006 Structure Elucidation By Spectral Analysis III Elective 3 0 0 6
ELECTIVE COURSES 1
No Course Unit Code Course Unit Title Type of Course T P L ECTS
1 9303046012012 Alkaloids I Elective 4 4 0 0
2 9303046042012 Product Development and Innovation in Pharmacognosy Elective 2 4 0 0
3 9303046062012 Statistical Evaluations of Pharmacognostical Studies Elective 1 0 0 0
4 9303046112012 Structure Elucidation By Spectroscopic Analysis I Elective 3 0 0 0
5 9303046142005 Bioactivity Tutorials In Pharmacognosy Elective 2 2 0 0
6 9303046152005 Importance Of Biotechnology And Its Applications İn Pharmacognosy I Elective 2 0 0 0
7 9303046162005 Isolation And Purification Techniques In Phytochemistry I Elective 0 4 0 0
8 9303046182005 Isolation And Purification Techniques In Phytochemistry II Elective 0 4 0 0
9 9303046192012 Alkaloids II Elective 4 4 0 0
10 9303046272014 Isolation And Purification Techniques İn Phytochemistry II Elective 4 0 0 0
11 9303046292012 Structure Elucidation by Spectroscopic Analysis II Elective 4 0 0 0
12 9303046332014 Importance Of Biotechnology And Its Applications İn Pharmacognosy II Elective 2 0 0 0
13 9303046402006 Structure Elucidation By Spectral Analysis IV Elective 3 0 0 0
14 9303046412006 Structure Elucidation By Spectral Analysis III Elective 3 0 0 0
ELECTIVE COURSES 1
No Course Unit Code Course Unit Title Type of Course T P L ECTS
1 9303046012012 Alkaloids I Elective 4 4 0 16
2 9303046042012 Product Development and Innovation in Pharmacognosy Elective 2 4 0 12
3 9303046062012 Statistical Evaluations of Pharmacognostical Studies Elective 1 0 0 2
4 9303046112012 Structure Elucidation By Spectroscopic Analysis I Elective 3 0 0 6
5 9303046142005 Bioactivity Tutorials In Pharmacognosy Elective 2 2 0 8
6 9303046152005 Importance Of Biotechnology And Its Applications İn Pharmacognosy I Elective 2 0 0 4
7 9303046162005 Isolation And Purification Techniques In Phytochemistry I Elective 0 4 0 8
8 9303046182005 Isolation And Purification Techniques In Phytochemistry II Elective 0 4 0 8
9 9303046192012 Alkaloids II Elective 4 4 0 9
10 9303046272014 Isolation And Purification Techniques İn Phytochemistry II Elective 4 0 0 8
11 9303046292012 Structure Elucidation by Spectroscopic Analysis II Elective 4 0 0 8
12 9303046332014 Importance Of Biotechnology And Its Applications İn Pharmacognosy II Elective 2 0 0 4
13 9303046402006 Structure Elucidation By Spectral Analysis IV Elective 3 0 0 6
14 9303046412006 Structure Elucidation By Spectral Analysis III Elective 3 0 0 6
ELECTIVE COURSES 1
No Course Unit Code Course Unit Title Type of Course T P L ECTS
1 9303046012012 Alkaloids I Elective 4 4 0 0
2 9303046042012 Product Development and Innovation in Pharmacognosy Elective 2 4 0 0
3 9303046062012 Statistical Evaluations of Pharmacognostical Studies Elective 1 0 0 0
4 9303046112012 Structure Elucidation By Spectroscopic Analysis I Elective 3 0 0 0
5 9303046142005 Bioactivity Tutorials In Pharmacognosy Elective 2 2 0 0
6 9303046152005 Importance Of Biotechnology And Its Applications İn Pharmacognosy I Elective 2 0 0 0
7 9303046162005 Isolation And Purification Techniques In Phytochemistry I Elective 0 4 0 0
8 9303046182005 Isolation And Purification Techniques In Phytochemistry II Elective 0 4 0 0
9 9303046192012 Alkaloids II Elective 4 4 0 0
10 9303046272014 Isolation And Purification Techniques İn Phytochemistry II Elective 4 0 0 0
11 9303046292012 Structure Elucidation by Spectroscopic Analysis II Elective 4 0 0 0
12 9303046332014 Importance Of Biotechnology And Its Applications İn Pharmacognosy II Elective 2 0 0 0
13 9303046402006 Structure Elucidation By Spectral Analysis IV Elective 3 0 0 0
14 9303046412006 Structure Elucidation By Spectral Analysis III Elective 3 0 0 0
ELECTIVE COURSES 1
No Course Unit Code Course Unit Title Type of Course T P L ECTS
1 9303046012012 Alkaloids I Elective 4 4 0 16
2 9303046042012 Product Development and Innovation in Pharmacognosy Elective 2 4 0 12
3 9303046062012 Statistical Evaluations of Pharmacognostical Studies Elective 1 0 0 2
4 9303046112012 Structure Elucidation By Spectroscopic Analysis I Elective 3 0 0 6
5 9303046142005 Bioactivity Tutorials In Pharmacognosy Elective 2 2 0 8
6 9303046152005 Importance Of Biotechnology And Its Applications İn Pharmacognosy I Elective 2 0 0 4
7 9303046162005 Isolation And Purification Techniques In Phytochemistry I Elective 0 4 0 8
8 9303046182005 Isolation And Purification Techniques In Phytochemistry II Elective 0 4 0 8
9 9303046192012 Alkaloids II Elective 4 4 0 9
10 9303046272014 Isolation And Purification Techniques İn Phytochemistry II Elective 4 0 0 8
11 9303046292012 Structure Elucidation by Spectroscopic Analysis II Elective 4 0 0 8
12 9303046332014 Importance Of Biotechnology And Its Applications İn Pharmacognosy II Elective 2 0 0 4
13 9303046402006 Structure Elucidation By Spectral Analysis IV Elective 3 0 0 6
14 9303046412006 Structure Elucidation By Spectral Analysis III Elective 3 0 0 6
 
Ege University, Bornova - İzmir / TURKEY • Phone: +90 232 311 10 10 • e-mail: intrec@mail.ege.edu.tr