Description of Individual Course Units
Course Unit CodeCourse Unit TitleType of Course UnitYear of StudySemesterNumber of ECTS Credits
Level of Course Unit
First Cycle and Second Cycle
Language of Instruction
Objectives of the Course
The aim of Pharmacognosy III course, is to provide students to identify and examine morphologically and anatomically the biological sources of active drugs and excipients that contain alkaloids, saponosides and cardiotonic glycosides and have sufficient knowledge and application skills for qualitative and quantitative determinations of active ingredients
Name of Lecturer(s)
Prof. Dr. Bijen KIVÇAK. Prof. Dr. Nehir SOMER, Prof. Dr. Hüsniye KAYALAR, . Prof. Dr. G. İrem KAYA, Doç. Dr. Buket BOZKURT, Doç. Dr. Tuğçe FAFAL
Learning Outcomes
1To be able to define the histological structure of medicinal plants, such as seed, fruit, root, stem, leaf, to be able to microscobically discriminate medicinal plants from officinal species.
2To be able to list biological sources of medical value, and determine the quality control of herbal drugs and be capable of decision-making about adulteration.
3To be able to, formulate and define the structure activity relationships, explain methods for identification and isolation of cardiotonic and saponoside glycosides and alkaloids and sort the plants and drugs that contain these secondary metabolites.
4To be able to give samples of preparations containing cardiotonic and saponoside glycosides and alkaloids and establish relationships with dosage, indications , toxicity and interactions with other pharmaceutical preparations and to be able give necessary patient and health stuff counseling
5Resulting from the technological developments, be able to make research and developments in the emerging biologically derived drugs that contain cardiotonic and saponoside glycosides and alkaloids and use this knowledge and experiences in primary health care.
Mode of Delivery
Face to Face
Prerequisites and co-requisities
Recommended Optional Programme Components
Course Contents
Definitions, structures, biological sources, pharmacological properties, medicinal uses and pharmaceutical forms of cardiotonic glycosides, saponosides and alkaloids, analysis of drugs according to DAB 10 Pharmacopeia standards.
Weekly Detailed Course Contents
1Cardiotonic glycosides - Definition of cardiotonic glycosides -Structures, structure-activity relationships -Steroidal cardiotonic glycosides -Cardenolide and bufadienolide structures -Physical and chemical properties of cardiotonic glycosides -İdentification and purity determination of cardiotonic glycosides. -Physiological and pharmacological activities of cardiotonic glycosides. Demonstrations laboratory layout Form working groups
2Important cardiotonic glycosides used in the treatment -Lanatoside C -Digoxin -Deslanatoside-Quabain -Digitoxine -Scillaren A Herbal drugs containing cardiotonic glycosides -Digitalis lanatae Folium - Digitalis purpurea Folium -Strophanti Semen (description, constituents, pharmaceutical forms, phytopharmaceuticals) Use of equipments and the issues to be considered in laboratory
3Digitaloids -Definition and activity -Scillae Bulbus -Convallariae Herba -Adonidis Herba -Nerii Folium (description, constituents, pharmaceutical forms, pharmacological properties, medicinal uses, combinations, tea formulations, phytopharmaceuticals -Cardiac arythyms and phytotherapeutics -Sarothamni scoparii herba -Gelsemii Radix -Rauwolifa Radix (description, constituents, pharmaceutical forms, phytopharmaceuticals) Calculation and preparation of solvents used in analytical studies, extraction and chromatogrphy techniques
4Saponosides -Description, chemical structures -Steroidal saponosides -Triterpenic saponosides -Starting materials of steroidal hormone synthesis -Diosgenin -Dioscorea sp. -Diosgenol, diosgenin extraction, other potential diosgenin sources -Hecogenol, hecogenin sources, smilagenin and its sources -Other starting materials of hormone synthesis, sterols, spirosolane type steroidal alkaloids -Pharmaceutical point of transformation of sapogenin and sterols to steroidsQuality Control of Glycose according to DAB 10 (determination of humidity, glycose content, heavy metal and melting point and identification reactions)
5-Detection of saponosides, Salkowski, Lieberman Burchard, Brieskorn-Briner reactions, hemolytic properties -Determination od saponosides, method of barite , gravimetric method, foaming index, index of hemolysis - General physical, biological and pharmacological properties of saponosides.Determination of sulfate ash and thin layer chromatographic identification and quantitative determination of alkaoids in Cortex Chinae
6Saponoside containing drugs -Saponoside containing drugs used to treat cough (Radix Senegae, Radix Primulae, Folia Hedera Helicis) -Saponoside containing drugs with detergent properties ( Radix Saponariae albae, Radix Saponariae rubrae, Cortex Quillajae) -Saponoside containing drugs with antiinflammatory activites (Radix Liquiritiae, Succus Liquiritiae, ammonium glycyrrhizat, Semen Hippocastanii) -Saponoside containing drugs used in dermatology (Tubera Cyclamenii, Radix Sarsaparillae) -Saponoside containing drugs with adaptogenic effects (Radix Ginseng, Herba Visci) Isolation, identification and titrimetric determination of citric acid from lemon
7Alkaloids -definition, history, occurrence in nature, biosynthesis -structures , taxonomy, nomenclature -general physical characteristics -general chemical properties quantitative determination by titrimetry and identification reactions of alkaloids of Cortex Chinae
8Midterm examSpectrophotometric determination of total alkaloid of Cortex Chinae and identification reeactions of Chinae alkaloids
9-General markers of alkaloids (Dragendorff, Bouchardart, Bertrand reagents) -Detection of alkaloids (Wall Method, Kiang Douglas Method) -Isolation of alkaloids -Purification of alkaloids (direct crystallisation, steam distillation, different pH techniques, chromatographic methods) -Structure elucidation of alkaloids -Quantitative determination of alkaloids -The importance of alkaloids in Pharmacognosy -Alkaloids with cholinergic effects -Alkaloids with cholinergic blocking effects -Alkaloids with adrenergic effectsFixed oil production from Semen Sesami and analysis of oils according to pharmacopoeia standards (soxhlet extraction and quantitative analysis of fixed oil, relative density with pycnometer, refractive index and acidity index determinations)Centaurii-identification of powdered drug Flos Hibisci Sabdariffa- identification of powdered drug and report preparation
10Protoalkaloids -Drugs with protoalkaloids -Herba Ephedra -Ephedrine, chemical formula, absorption, incompatibility, side effects, contraindications, pharmacological effects, the current preparations in Turkey, pseudoephedrine hydrochloride -Semen Colchici -Bulbus Colchici --Colchicine, preparations containing colchicine, gout disease -Piperidine and pyridine alkaloids General chemical formulas, nomenclature -Lobelin and similar alkaloids -Lobelia inflata -Lobelin (inflatine) -Lobelin hydrochloride, lobelin sulfate, isolobinin -Herba Lobeliamidterm examination
11Tropane alkaloids -General chemical formulas, nomenclature -Tropanol esters, identification reactions, the pharmacological effects of tropanol alkaloids Atropine, atropine sulfate, atropine metonitrat, atropine methyl bromide, n-diphenyl atropine hydrobromide -Hyoscyamin, hyoscyamin sulfate, hyoscyamin hydrobromide -Scopolamine, scopolamine hidrobromide, methscopolamine bromide, scopolamine n-buthylbromhydrate, methscopolamine nitrate Drugs containing tropane alkaloids -Folium Belladonnae, Herba Belladonnae, Radix Belladonnae -Folium Hyoscyami -Folium Stramonii, Semen Stramonii -Folium Dubosiae myoporoides -Radix Mandragorae Determination of unsaponifiable fraction and foreign oils in Oleum Olivae (exploriation of sesame and cotton oil)
12Indole Alkaloids General chemical formulas and nomenclature -Tertiary indole alkaloids -Reserpine -Deserpidine -Resinnamine -Syringopine -Ajmaline -Radix Rauwolfia -Cortex Yohimbae -Yohimbine hydrochloride -Herba Catharantii -Vincristine sulfate -Vinblastine sulfate -Semen Physostigmatis -Physostigmin -Herba Vincae -Vincamine -Secale cornutum -Ergot alkaloids, ergotamine, ergotoxine, ergonovine, methyl ergometrin, methysergide, hydergine, lysergic acid -Harman alkaloids -Herba Passiflorae Quality control studies on Fructus Anisi vulgaris (essential oil production by water distillation and quantitative analysis and thin layer chromatographic identification of essential pil componenets)
13Quinoline alkaloids General chemical formula, biosynthesis,quinicludine ring, rubanol ring -Quinine,Quinine sulfate, quinine hydrochloride, quinine effects, side effects and toxicity, detection and control, the use of quinine for treatment -Quinidine, quinidine sulfate, usage, quinidine gluconate, quinidine polygalacturonate, arabogalactan quinidine sulfate, quinidine phenylethyl barbiturate -Cortex Cinchona -Cortex Cuprea Isoquinoline group alkaloids Isoquinolinering system, the formula and numbering -İpeka alkaloids, Radix Ipecacuanhae, Emetin, Emetin hydrochloride, methyl psikotrin, sefaelin, psikotrin, ipeka syrup -Drugs containing bensylisoquinoline alkaloids Flos Rhoeados -Phytalilisoquinoline group alkaloids -Rhizoma Hydrastis, hydrastin, canadin, hydrastine chlorhydrate, berberine Laboratory work to complete the studies
14-Morphine alkaloids Opium, Papaver somniferum, Chinese opium, Indian opium, morphine, noscapine, codeine, papaverine, thebaine -Detection and determination of morphine -The use of opium, treatment and poisoning -Pantopon -Fructus Papaveris immaturi -Opioids -Codeine detection, quantification, uses, preparations, codeine sulfate, codeine hydrochloride, codeine phosphate, compounds derived from codeine -Noscapine -Thebaine -Papaverine, papaverine hydrochloride -İmidasole alkaloids -PilocarpineLaboratory work to complete the studies
15Alkaloid containing drugs used in phytotherapy (Herba Fumariae, Rhizoma Sanguinariae, Radix Symphytii, Semen Colae, Rhizoma Caulophylli, Lignum Quassiae, Herba Leonuri, Radix Cimicifuga Rasemosae, Folia Boldo, Herba Sarothamni Scoparii, Zanthoxylum Clava Herculis)Final laboratory examination
16Final examinationFinal written examination
Recommended or Required Reading
Ege University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, Pharmacognosy III, Lecture Notes TANKER, M., TANKER, N., Pharmacognosy, Ankara University Faculty of Pharmacy Publications Volume 1, No. 66, Ankara, 1991. TANKER, M., TANKER, N., Pharmacognosy, Ankara University Faculty of Pharmacy Publications Volume 2, No. 65, Ankara, 1991 BRUNETON, J., Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants 2 nd edition, Intercept Ltd., 1999. WC Evans, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy Fourteenth Edition, 1999.
Planned Learning Activities and Teaching Methods
Assessment Methods and Criteria
Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
Midterm Examination1100
End Of Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
Final Sınavı1100
Term (or Year) Learning Activities40
End Of Term (or Year) Learning Activities60
Work Placement(s)
Workload Calculation
ActivitiesNumberTime (hours)Total Work Load (hours)
Midterm Examination111
Final Examination111
Attending Lectures14228
Report Preparation14114
Individual Study for Mid term Examination11414
Individual Study for Final Examination12828
Laboratory Midterm Examination133
Laboratory Examination339
Contribution of Learning Outcomes to Programme Outcomes
LO1 523 45554534223233 3
LO2 523555554552343523 4
LO3 523555554552324553 5
LO4452345 554455433443 4
LO5452355 554455555553 5
* Contribution Level : 1 Very low 2 Low 3 Medium 4 High 5 Very High
Ege University, Bornova - İzmir / TURKEY • Phone: +90 232 311 10 10 • e-mail: