Description of Individual Course Units
Course Unit CodeCourse Unit TitleType of Course UnitYear of StudySemesterNumber of ECTS Credits
Level of Course Unit
First Cycle and Second Cycle
Language of Instruction
Objectives of the Course
The aim of this course is to provide students to be able to, identify the essential oil, components of essential oils, resins, latex and pix drugs, list the biological sources and medicinal uses of enzymes, vitamins, antibiotics, vaccines and serums and be able to design quality control and phytochemical analysis of phytotherapeutics according to European Pharmacopeia standards and design preparation of phytotheraupeutics in pharmacies.
Name of Lecturer(s)
Prof. Dr. Bijen KIVÇAK. Prof. Dr. Nehir SOMER, Prof. Dr. Hüsniye KAYALAR, . Prof. Dr. G. İrem KAYA, Doç. Dr. Buket BOZKURT, Doç. Dr. Tuğçe FAFAL
Learning Outcomes
1To be able to interpret the information about general properties, isolation, medicinal uses and toxicity of essential oil components and essential oil drugs
2To be able to have sufficient knowledge and application skills about physical and chemical properties, biological sources and medicinal uses of vaccines, serums and pharmaceutical preparations of enzymes, vitamins and antibiotics.
3To have sufficient knowledge about biological sources, medicinal uses, storage, presentation to patient, dose, route of administration and incompatibility of enzymes, vitamins, antibiotics, vaccines and serums and with the help of this knowledge to be able to serve as consultant to patient, physicians and other health stuff about drugs of biological origin
4To have knowledge about extraction of secondary metabolites from biological sources and be able to determine extraction techniques and methods of isolation, quantitative analysis and chromatographic identifications and spectral analysis of pure compounds and understand and apply all the principles of Analytical Pharmacognosy
Mode of Delivery
Face to Face
Prerequisites and co-requisities
Recommended Optional Programme Components
Course Contents
Essential oils, general characteristics, isolation procedures, essential oil components and essential oil drugs, definitions and drugs of resins, latex, pix, , enzymes, vitamins, classsification, mechanisms of action, resistance development, selection of antibiotics, antibiotics of biological origin used in treatment, antineoplastic effective antibiotics, antineoplastics of biological origin, vaccines and serums, analytical pharmacognosy laboratory and equipments, analysis of drugs according to European Pharmacopoeia standards
Weekly Detailed Course Contents
1General properties of essential oils The occurence and the role of essential oils in plants The physical properties of essential oils Chemical structures of essential oil compounds Quality control of essential oil drugs Storage of essential oils Toxicity and pharmacological properties of essential oils The use of esential oils in cosmetology , hygienic produccts, perfume , food and other branches of industryDemonstrations laboratory layout, Form working groups
2Camphor Menthol, Aetheroleum Menthae arvensis dementholatum Thymol, AetheroleumThyme, Herba ThymeUse of equipments and the issues to be considered in laboratory
3Essential oil components and the drugs Herba Serpylli Herba Origani Herba Satureaja hortensis Eucalyptol Aetheroleum Eucalypti Folia Eucalypti Aetheroleum Niaouli Aetheroleum Salvia trilobae Aetheroleum Lauri Folia Lauri Oleum Lauri expressum Aetheroleum Salviae Aetheroleum Rosmari Eugenol Aetheroleum Caryophylli Flos CaryophylliDemonstration, general knowledge about Phytotherapy, Aromatherapy and Homeopathy
4Oleum Rosae Rose Concrete Oleum Pelargonii Oleum Palma rosae Folia Menthae piperitae Oleum Juniperi Oleum Pini Palustri Oleum Lavandulae Oleum Aurantii floris Oleum Neroli Fructus Coriandri Fructus Cardamomi Herba Mentha spicata Fructus Carvi Folia Borosmae Oleum Cedri Herba Absinthii Oleum Chenopodii Ascaridol Oleum SabinaeMacroscopical analysis of drugs used in Phytotherapy
5Aetheroleum Anisi vulgaris Fructus Anisi vulgaris Oleum Anisi stellati Fructus Anisi stellati Fructus Foeniculi Oleum Pini pumilionis Oleum Terebinthinae Cortex Cinnamomi cassiae Cortex Cinnamomi ceylanici Cynnamylaldehyde Pericarpium citri Oleum Citri Terpen free extract of Lemon Oleum Aurantii pericarpii dulcis Citronella Folia MelissaeMacroscopical analysis of drugs used in Phytotherapy
6Lemon Verbena Lemon Grass Oleum Bergamia Aqua Hamamelis Sasafras Teatree Cajeput Acorus calamus Flores Chamomilla vulgaris Flores Chamomilla romanae Flores Cinae Radix ValerianaePhytotherapeutics prepared in Pharmacy
7Crocus Rhizoma Iridis Petroselinum crispum Artemisia dracunculus Ocimum basilicum Hyssopus officinalis Pennyroyal Resins, balsam, pix and latex Fructus Cubabe Herba Cannabis Lacca Styrax liquidus Balsamum Tolutanum Balsamum Peruvianum Benzoe Asafoetida Terebinthina Colophonium Filix mas Catechu Gutta percha Pix Liquida Pix Juniperi Pix BetulaeInvestigation on Flores Chamomilla vulgaris according to European Pharmacopeia and Quantitative determination of Tropanol esthers of Solanaceae alkaloids
8Enzymes Use of enzymes in treatment and important enzymes in terms of Pharmacognosy Animal-derived enzymes used as an aid to digestive system Pancreatin Pancrelipase Pepsin Renet and renin Plant-derived enzymes to aid digestion Papain Chymopapain Bromelain Fisin and Ficus speciesPhytochemical analysis of active constituents
9Malt, malt extract and diastase enzymes from microorganisms Takadiastase Galactosidase Enzymes used for the purpose of removing skin of dead tissue, cells or unwanted components Microorganism-derived enzymes Collagenase Subtilisin Enzyme derived from animal sources Trypsin Chymotripsin Elate, fibrinolisine, deoxyribonuclease Recombinant products Blodd clotting and related enzymes Microbiological culture derived enzymes Streptokinase StreptodornaseLiquritoside isolation from Radix Liquiritiae according to European Pharmacopeia (I) determination of foaming index and Preparation of Apple vinegar
10midterm examinationmidterm examination
11Vitamins B, C, A, E, D, KLiquritoside isolation from Radix Liquiritiae according to European Pharmacopoeia (II) preparation of Succus Liquiritiae, soap making from Olive Oil and preparation of linseed (Semen Lini) poultice
12Classification of antibiotics according to mechanisms of action Selectivity Resistance Production of antibiotics Chemical properties Quality control, selection and importance of antibioticsDetermination of Total Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of Folia Rosmarini according to European Pharmacopeia and several identification tests
13Antibiotics used in treatment Classification of antibiotics according to mechanisms of action Antibiotics that inhibit the cell wall of pathogenic microorganisms Antibiotics that inhibit the stoplasmic reactions of murein biosynthesis Antibiotics that inhibit the plasma membrane rections of murein biosynthesis Antibiotics that inhibit the extra plasmatic reaction of murein biosynthesis fFosfomisin, basitrasin, vancomycin, penicilines Penicilines and peniciline salts used in treatment Polypeptide antibiotics Tyrotrisine, gramisidin, polymixin, daptomycine, capreomycine, viomycine Poliene antibiotics (nystatin, mycostatine, amphotericin B) Antibiotics that inhibit mitosis (griseofulvin) Antibiotics that inhibit rybosomal protein synthesis Neomycin, canamycin, gentamycin, tetracyclines, macrolide antibiotics (oleandomycin, treoleandomycin) Glycosidic antibiotics (lyncosamides,lyncomycin,novobiocin, spectinomicin, fusidic acid)Aqua Thymi and Aetheroleum Thymi Preparation according to European Pharmacopoeia and Chromatographic analysis
14Antineoplastic antibiotics Other antineoplastic compounds of biological origin Vinca alkaoids Podophyllotoxin derivatives Camptothecin derivatives Taxane derivativesWeekly assesments of laboratory work and reports
15Vaccines Vaccine schedules Serums and sources of serums Final laboratory examination
16final examinationFinal written examination
Recommended or Required Reading
Ege University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, Pharmacognosy IV, Lecture Notes TANKER, M., TANKER, N., Pharmacognosy, Ankara University Faculty of Pharmacy Publications Volume 1, No. 66, Ankara, 1991. TANKER, M., TANKER, N., Pharmacognosy, Ankara University Faculty of Pharmacy Publications Volume 2, No. 65, Ankara, 1991 BRUNETON, J., Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants 2 nd edition, Intercept Ltd., 1999. WC Evans, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy Fourteenth Edition, 1999.
Planned Learning Activities and Teaching Methods
Assessment Methods and Criteria
Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
Midterm Examination1100
End Of Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
Final Sınavı1100
Term (or Year) Learning Activities40
End Of Term (or Year) Learning Activities60
Work Placement(s)
Workload Calculation
ActivitiesNumberTime (hours)Total Work Load (hours)
Midterm Examination111
Final Examination111
Attending Lectures14228
Individual Study for Mid term Examination11414
Individual Study for Final Examination12828
Laboratory Midterm Examination111
Laboratory Examination133
Contribution of Learning Outcomes to Programme Outcomes
LO1 5  255554534223233 3
LO235   55554553222343 4
LO3453 355554555554553 5
LO424 4 555555     324 5
* Contribution Level : 1 Very low 2 Low 3 Medium 4 High 5 Very High
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