Description of Individual Course Units
Course Unit CodeCourse Unit TitleType of Course UnitYear of StudySemesterNumber of ECTS Credits
300001582015PHYSIOLOGYCompulsory120
Level of Course Unit
First Cycle and Second Cycle
Objectives of the Course
The aim of Pharmacognosy I course, is to provide students to recognize the concepts of Pharmacognosy and by comprehending the historical development , it is aimed for students to be able to provide a benchmark and be able to criticize the current status of Pharmacognosy. In addition, Pharmacognosy course aims to provide students to be capable of comparing the drugs of biological origin and be able to explain production methods and standardisation and quality control methods for biologically originated drugs. It is also intended for students to gain the ability to identify the natural sources and drugs of carbohydrates as primary metabolic products and be able to establish the relationship between the structure of active constituents and effects on human health. The practical studies of Pharmacognosy I course supplies students to be able to identify the anatomical characteristics (starch, hairs, crstals etc.) of drugs of pharmaceutical importance.
Name of Lecturer(s)
Prof.Dr. M. Ali ÖNÜR, Prof. Dr. Bijen KIVÇAK, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nehir SOMER, Assoc. Prof. Dr.Hüsniye KAYALAR, Assist. Prof. Dr. G. İrem KAYA
Learning Outcomes
1Farmakognozi kavramını tanıma, Farmakognozi’nin tarihsel gelişimini kavrayarak, güncel durumunu eleştirip, değerlendirebilme
2Biyolojik kaynaklı ilaçları ve biyolojik üretim yöntemlerini kavrayabilme ve birbiriyle karşılaştırabilme
3Biyolojik kaynaklı ilaçların standardizasyonu ve farmakopelerdeki kalite kontrollerine ait hususları açıklayabilme
4Drogların içerdiği etkin bileşikler ile insan sağlığı üzerine etkileri arasında ilişki kurabilme
5Primer metabolizma ürünlerinden karbonhidratları (monosakkarit, disakkarit ve polisakkarit) içeren doğal kaynakları ve drogları tanıyabilme, metabolizmaları, etkileri ve kullanımlarını açıklayabilme
6Eczacılık açısından önemli bitkisel drogların temel anatomik özelliklerini (nişasta, tüy, kristal gibi) tanıyıp, çizerek ifade edebilme, karşılaştırrarak ayırdedebilme
Mode of Delivery
Face to Face
Prerequisites and co-requisities
None
Recommended Optional Programme Components
None
Course Contents
Definition and historical development of Pharmacognosy , biologically derived drugs and biological production methods, utilization of wild Plants and culture of medicinal plants, preparation of drugs of plants, use of animals for the production of biologically derived drugs and medicines, packaging, storage and trasportation of biologically derived drugs and medicines, drug manufacturer countries and commerce of drugs, standardisation of biologically originated drugs and medicines, general physical and chemical properties of carbohyhdrates, drugs of monosaccharide as active constituents ,monosaccharide derivatives, substances metabolically related with sugars, lactic acid producing microorganisms, general properties of oligosaccharides, homogenous polysaccharides, heterogenous polysaccharides
Weekly Detailed Course Contents
WeekTheoreticalPracticeLaboratory
1Definition and Historical development of Pharmacognosy Empirical Period Scientific Period High Technology PeriodUse of microscope, recognizing parts of microscope, reagents used in laboratory practices
2Drugs of biological origin and Biological production methods Microbiological Culture Method Cell Suspension and Tissue Culture Method Recombinant DNA technology and Biyotechnological ProductionMicroscobical identification, discrimination, macroscopical and organoleptic analysis of starch drugs
3Utilization of Wild Plants and Culture of Medicinal Plants Utilization of wild plants Agricultural safety rules for medicinal plants Medicinal plant factors affecting the culture Environmental factors Agricultural PracticesMicroscopical identification, discrimination, macroscopical and organoleptic analysis of gums and mucilages
4Preparation of drugs from plants Determining the parts of plants to be collected Determining the time of harvest Type of harvest, selecting and purifying Evaluation of product Stabilisation Bourquelot Method Perrot-Goris Method Modified Perrot-Goris Method Method of hot air contact Methods underconstruction Drying Process Drying under air with sunlight Drying under air in shadow light Lyophilization Methods under construction Use of animals for the production of biologically derived drugs and medicines Packaging, storage and transportation of biologically derived drugs and medicines Packaging Storage and safekeeping Transportation Drug manufacturer countries and commerce of drugs Microscopical identification, discrimination, macroscopical and organoleptic analysis of drugs with crystals
5Contamination of plant drugs Contamination with microoganisms Contamination with heavy metals Contamination with pesticides Contamination with radioactive substances Contamination with insects and rodents Standardisation of biologicallly originated drugs and medicines Microscopical identification, discrimination, macroscopical and organoleptic analysis of drugs with hairs (trichome)
6General physical and chemical properties of carbohyhdrates Drugs of monosaccharides as active constituents • Honey • Cleaned Honey • Bee poison • Propolis • Pollen • Mad Honey • Royal JellyMicroscopical identification, discrimination, macroscopical and organoleptic analysis of drugs with glandular hairs
7Drugs of monosaccharides as active constituents • Tamarind pulp • Succus Cerasi-Cherry Syrup • Succus Rubi Idaeı-Raspberry Syrup • Succus Mori-Mulberry Syrup • Figs Monosaccharide • Glucose • Fructose • Xylose • GalactoseMicroscopical identification, discrimination, macroscopical and organoleptic analysis of drugs with internal secretory organs
8Midterm exam Midterm exam
9Monosaccharide Derivatives -Polyalcohols Glycerol Xylitol Sorbitol Mannitol, Manna, Manna Ash Inositol, phytin • Uronic acid • Sugar Esters • Sugar amines - Onic acidMicroscopical identification, discrimination, macroscopical and organoleptic analysis of drugs with particular epidermis and stomata
10Substances metabolically related with sugars o Wine Tartness of wine and potassium tartrate o Potassium bitartrate -Tartaric acid • Vinegar • Alcohol • Acetic Acid • Citric Acid o Sodium Citrate o Calcium Citrate o Potassium Citrate • Lactic acid Sodium lactate Calcium lactate o Calcium Sodium Lactate o Potassium Lactate SolutionMicroscobical identification, discrimination, macroscopical and organoleptic analysis of drugs with particular cell wall thickening
11Lactic acid producing microorganisms - Gluconic acid -Calcium Gluconate -Ferrogluconate -Potassium Gluconate - Calcium Levulinate -Calcium gluceptateMicroscopical identification, discrimination, macroscopical and organoleptic analysis of flowering structures
12General properties of oligosaccharides Sucrose Caramel Lactose Laktulose MaltoseComplementary laboratory work according to previous practices
13Homogenous polysaccharides -Inulin -Cellulose -Gossypium Depuratum -Piroksisilin -Kollodyon -Cellulose Derivatives • Other polysaccharides similar to celluloseCompllementary laboratory practice according to previous practices
14Homogenous polysaccharides Polysaccharides Obtained from Microorganisms - Dextran - Xanthan - Lentinan -Microcroorganism derived poliosides used for other industrial purposes -Algal Polysaccharides -Alginic Acid and Alginates -Carrageen -Agar Complementary laboratory work according to previous practices
15Heterogenous polysaccharides -Gums -Gummi Tragacanthae -Gummi Arabicum Neutral mucilages -Ceratonia siliqua (Goat Horn) -Semen Foenugraeci • Heterogeneous acidic polysaccharides (acidic mucilages) Plantaginaceae Mucilages Malvales Mucilages o Other drugs containing mucilages • PectinsComplementary laboratory work according to previous practices
16Final examFinal exam
Recommended or Required Reading
1.Course note: Pharmacognosy I Lecture Notes-Ege University Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Pharmacognosy 2. Farmakognozi, Mekin Tanker, Nevin Taker; Ankara Üniversity Faculty of Pharmacy Publishing No:66-1 (1991) 3. Bitkisel Drogların Anatomik Yapısı, Asuman Baytop, İstanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy Publishing (1972) 4.Pharmacognosy Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants,2nd Edition; J. Bruneton, 1999 5.Pharmacognosie, Phytopharmazie, 8.Auflage; R. Haensel, O. Sticher 2007 (in German) ISBN-10 3-540-34256-7, ISBN-13 978-3-540-34265-4
Planned Learning Activities and Teaching Methods
Activities are given in detail in the section of "Assessment Methods and Criteria" and "Workload Calculation"
Assessment Methods and Criteria
Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
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End Of Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
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Language of Instruction
Turkish
Work Placement(s)
None
Workload Calculation
ActivitiesNumberTime (hours)Total Work Load (hours)
Midterm Examination111
Final Examination111
Quiz30.51.5
Attending Lectures14228
Practice14342
Report Preparation14228
Individual Study for Mid term Examination13030
Individual Study for Final Examination14040
Individual Study for Quiz313
TOTAL WORKLOAD (hours)174.5
Contribution of Learning Outcomes to Programme Outcomes
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* Contribution Level : 1 Very low 2 Low 3 Medium 4 High 5 Very High
 
Ege University, Bornova - İzmir / TURKEY • Phone: +90 232 311 10 10 • e-mail: intrec@mail.ege.edu.tr