Description of Individual Course Units
Course Unit CodeCourse Unit TitleType of Course UnitYear of StudySemesterNumber of ECTS Credits
402002052006ANIMAL HISTOLOGYCompulsory235
Level of Course Unit
First Cycle
Objectives of the Course
The goal of this course is to describe the structure and function of the normal tissues of the body and provide a background for students in biological sciences and allied health fields of study who are continuing their training in professional and graduate programs
Name of Lecturer(s)
Prof. Dr. Hüseyin ARIKAN Prof. Dr. Gürsel ERGEN Prof. Dr. Sema İŞİSAĞ ÜÇÜNCÜ Assist. Prof. Dr. Hatice KARAKİŞİ
Learning Outcomes
1To acquire a working knowledge and understanding of the microscopic anatomy of mammalians.
2To provide identify and explaining the structure of the major tissues and organs
3To acquire a detailed background of the relationship between the structure and function of differentiated/specialized cell types, tissue types, organs and systems of mammalians
4To observe and study the microscopic anatomy of selected differentiated/specialized cell types, tissue types, and organs of mammalians
5To provide the main knowledge about the feasible connections between fundemental and apllied sciences
6To gain experience in reading and evaluating scientific literature.
7To gain a working knowledge and understanding of some of the techniques that are used to investigate microanatomy.
Mode of Delivery
Face to Face
Prerequisites and co-requisities
Recommended Optional Programme Components
Course Contents
The histology course consists of a detailed survey of mammalian histology involving both lecture/discussion and laboratory examination of sectioned tissues. The course is designed not only to understand the structural uniqueness but also give an overview of its functional relevance. Students who take this course will develop an in depth understanding of mammalian tissue structure/function. By the end of the course, successful students should be familiar with the organization and appearance of animal tissues; would be learn how to locate and identify normal mammalian tissues and organs using photomicrographs, microscope slides, digital images, CD-ROM, and internet resources. They also should be able to use the specific and precise terminology of the field of histology, to identify specimens (including cell and tissue components) from all major organs of the body by using a light microscope; and should understand the relationship between tissue composition and organ function. At the end of the course, the students will be able to relate the normal microscopic structure of body organs with their functions with a view to applying this knowledge to further studies in their probable medical careers.
Weekly Detailed Course Contents
1Introduction. A brief summary on tissues: concept and classification. Epithelial Tissues: structural characteristics, origins, distribution, classification and function of the epithelium. Concept of the covering and glandular epithelium and gland. Histophysiology of epithelium.Methods used to study histology. Overview on studying light microscope. Epithelial Tissue: Simple cuboid and squamosus epithelia in urether
2Connective Tissues: the biochemical constituents of the matrix, the morphological structure and function of fiber types and the main cell types. The classification and histophysiology.Glandular epithelia, exocrine and endocrine glands: salivary gland and pancreas.
3The structure and function of adipose tissue. The structural features, classification and histophysiology of cartilage. Loose connective and adipose tissue in urinary bladder. Dense-irregular connective tissue in frog skin, dense-regular connective tissue in tendon
4Bones and bone tissue: The structure of cancellous and compact bone, periosteum and endosteum. Cell types of the bone tissue. Two modes of osteogenesis. Histophysiology. The joints.Bone tissue.
5Blood. The composition of plasma and the classification of the cells. Coagulation. Blood, the cells.
6An overview on hematopoesis and immune system. The lymphatic tissues and organs. Lymphatic tissues, spleen.
7Muscle tissue: skeletal muscle; fibers, myofibers and myofilaments. Sliding filament model, motor innervation. Cardiac and smooth muscle.Muscle tissue; striated, smooth and cardiac muscle.
8Midterm Midterm
9Nervous tissue: the structure, function and classification of the neuron. The glial cells and the myelin sheath. Action potential. An overview on synapses and neurotransmitters.Nervous tissue, cerebellum, spinal cord
10Central and peripheral nervous system: the structure and functions of cerebrum, cerebellum, nuclei, spinal cord, ganglions and peripheral nerves. The cerebrospinal fluid, blood- brain barrier. An overview on neuroendocrine system.Nervous tissue, peripheral nerves. Neuroendocrine system, the thyroid
11Cardiovascular system: the heart, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. The structure, functions and classification. Respiratory system: the structure and functions of the nasal cavity, larynx, trachea. Cardiovascular system, the arteries. Respiratory system, the lung.
12Respiratory system: bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli. Digestive system: the structure and functions of the oral cavity and pharynx. The layers of alimentary canal. Alimentary canal, the oesophagus and fundus.
13Digestive system: The main structural characteristics and functions of stomach, small and large intestine. Alimentary canal, the duodenum.
14Glands associated digestive system: The liver, gallbladder and pancreas. Alimentery canal, the liver.
15Urinary system: the structure of the kidney, the structure, functions and classification of the nephronesUrinary system, the kidney
16Final ExamFinal Exam
Recommended or Required Reading
Sema İşisağ Üçüncü, Gürsel Ergen, Hüseyin Arıkan, 2009. Histoloji. EÜ Yayınları, 2. Baskı, Bornova-İzmir Luiz C. Junqueira and Jose Carneiro , 2005, Basic Histology, Text and Atlas, 11th Ed., McGraw-Hill Publishing. Michael H. Ross, Gordon I. Kaye and Wojiech Paulina, 2003. Histology, A Text and Atlas. Fourth Edition. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.
Planned Learning Activities and Teaching Methods
Activities are given in detail in the section of "Assessment Methods and Criteria" and "Workload Calculation"
Assessment Methods and Criteria
Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
Midterm Examination175
End Of Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
Final Examination1100
Term (or Year) Learning Activities40
End Of Term (or Year) Learning Activities60
Language of Instruction
Work Placement(s)
Workload Calculation
ActivitiesNumberTime (hours)Total Work Load (hours)
Midterm Examination111
Final Examination111
Attending Lectures14228
Report Preparation11010
Self Study10550
Individual Study for Mid term Examination11010
Individual Study for Final Examination11010
Contribution of Learning Outcomes to Programme Outcomes
LO1543         5 
LO2554   4     5 
LO3 45         5 
LO455455 4     5 
LO554545    4  5 
LO6 3   4 5  35  
LO7 4     54  4 5
* Contribution Level : 1 Very low 2 Low 3 Medium 4 High 5 Very High
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