Description of Individual Course Units
Course Unit CodeCourse Unit TitleType of Course UnitYear of StudySemesterNumber of ECTS Credits
402002112015PLANT ANATOMYCompulsory244
Level of Course Unit
First Cycle
Objectives of the Course
The aim of this lesson is describing the basic morphological and anatomical structure of plants on tissue and organ level, displaying the differences between the plant groups.
Name of Lecturer(s)
Prof.Dr. Nedret ŞENGONCA, Prof. Dr. Hatice DEMİRAY, Prof. Dr. Meliha GEMİCİ, Doç. Dr. Aylin Eşiz Dereboylu
Learning Outcomes
1Learning the basic concepts of plant anatomy
2Trying to make connections with cell, tissue and organs of plant
3Making connections between the subjects of General Botany, Plant Biology and Plant Physiology and the subjects of Plant Anatomy
4Adaptation of the subjects of plant anatomy to daily life
5Considering different plants groups as anatomically
6Interpreting the plants anatomicaly according to their adaptation to different habitats
Mode of Delivery
Face to Face
Prerequisites and co-requisities
Recommended Optional Programme Components
Course Contents
Cell, organism, ontogenesis and endosymbiosis theories, Cell anatomy, cell wall, primary and secondary walls, thickenings of cell wall, primary pits, bordered pits and semi bordered pits, Schizogenous and lysigenous and schizolysigenous secretory cavities, Tissues in high plants (meristematic and permanent), Cytological characteristics of meristems, developmental stages of meristems, meristems according to their places (root, shoot and leaf), functions of cambium and periskl in secondary thickening, intercalary meristems and functions, permanent tissues, dermal system, structure and functions of epidermis cells, shapes, functions and structures of stomata, trichomes (scretory and non-secretory), structures, fuctions of lenticels, structure and functions of parenchymatic tissue, classification of parenchymatic tissues according to functions (chlorenchyma, storage and arenchyma), mechanical system; morphologycal, structural and functional characteristics of collenchyma (angular, tangential and lacunar); morphologycal, structural and functional characteristics of sclerenchyma; absorption system; root anatomy, shoot anatomy, leaf anatomy.
Weekly Detailed Course Contents
1- Description of morphology and anatomy - Inner and outer morphology - Unicellular and pluricellular lives, growth and differention -Homolog organs, analog organs, divergency and convergency - Cell, organism, ontogenesis and endosymbiosis theories Description of microscope and solitary cell a)Description of microscope - Description of cell - Informing about cell wall, cytoplasm, organelles such as nucleus, plastids (Choloroplast, chromoplast, leucoplast), mitochondri, vacuole b) Investigation of solitary cell and fractions - Investigation of choloroplast Sample: Ligustrum vulgare -Investigation of chromoplast Sample: Lycopersicon esculentum
2-General structure of cell -Protoplasmic and non-protoplasmic structures - Cell shape and size -Functions of cell - Cell anatomy, cell wall, primary and secondary walls - Chemical component of cell wall Tissue occuring cells with structure of raphide and druse as ergastic substances a)Tissue occuring cells Sample: Allium cepa b) Structure of raphide and druse as ergastic substances - Investigation of raphide structure Sample: Impatiens sultani -Investigation of druse structure Sample: Begonia sp
3-Thickening of wall; homogen and heterogen - Simple, bordered and half bordered pits - Schizogenous and lysigenous and schizolysigenous secretory cavities - Types of wall enlargements (aposition, intussuception, multinet growth) -Submicroscobic structure of cell wall - General characteristics of protoplasm and cytoplasm Dermal systems -Investigation of epidermis and cutinized wall Sample: Clivia nobilis -Investigation of wrinkles of cuticula and epidermis Sample: Helleborus sp. -Investigation of epidermis cells by surface sectioning Sample: Cyperus sp.
4-Cell membrane (fluid-mosaic model) -General chracteristics of vacuole and nucleus -Tissues in higher plants (meristematic and permanent tissue) - Cytological chracteristics of meristems, meristems according to devolopment of stages - Meristems according to their places (root, shoot and leaf) -Apical meristems (histogene and tunica-corpus theories) Periderm and lenticel a)Periderm - Phellogen -Phellem -Phelloderm Sample: Populus alba b) Lenticele Sample: Sambucus nigra
5-Lateral meristems -Characteristics and functions of cambium tissue and cells types -Functions of cambium and periskl tissues in secondary thickening -Intercalary meristems and functions -Classification of meristematic tissues according to origins (primary and secondary meristems). Support Tissues 1.Collenchyma a)Angular Sample: Begonia sp. b)Tangantial Sample: Sambucus nigra a).Scleranchyma (Sclereids) Sample: Hoya carnosa b)Scleranchymatic fibers Sample: Cinchona sp
6-Permanent tissues classification (dermal, permanent tissue, mechanical, absortion, secretory, motion systems and photosynthetic system, storage, conductive and aerial parenchymas -Dermal systems, structure and funtions of epiderm cells -Description of bark and ritidome -Derivatives of epidermis (trichomes) a)Simple trichomes Sample: Saintpaulia sp. b)Branched trichomes Örnek: Verbascum sp. c)Peltate Sample: Olea europaea d)Glandular Sample: Pelargonium sp. e)Stinging hair Sample: Urtica sp.
7Special structures derived from epidermis (stomata, trichomes and lentisels) -Shape, structure and functions of stomata -Hypostomatic, epistomatic and amphistomatic leaves -Stomata types on plants adapted different ecological conditions (xeromorf, hygromorf and mesomorf) -Anatonizis and katotonizis movement in mechanisms of stomatal opening and closure, role of light, Ca, K, abscisic acid and cytokinin -Classification of stamata cells according to structural differences (Mnium type stomata, amaryllis type and Graminae type stomata) -Different stomata cell types according to neighboring cells (anomosotic or unregular celled, parasitic or parallell celled, diasitic or cross celled. Structures derived from Epidermis (Stomata) A-Stomata 1.Mnium type stomata Sample: Polypodium sp. 2. Amaryllis type stomata Sample: Rhoeo discolor 3.Gramineae type stomata Sample: Cyperus sp.
9-Trichomes (secretory and non-secretory hairs) -Trichomes (unicelluler or multicelluler), shapes structure and functions in plants -General types and shapes of trichomes (peltate, glandular, water bubble vesicles), root absorption hairs) -Structure and function of lenticels in plants - Structure and function of Parenchymatic tissue -Classification of parenchymatic cells according to function (chlorenchyma, storage parenchyma an aerenchyma) Root hairs Root and Anatomic Structure a) Monocotyl root Sample: Iris sp. b) Dicotyl root Sample: Ranunculus
10-Mechanical system (support providing tissues -Morphological, stuctural and functional proporties of collenchyma tissue (angular, tangantial, lacunar and tubular) - Morphological, stuctural and functional proporties of sclerenchyma tissue - sclerenchyma cells ( brachysclereid, macrosclereid, astrosclereid) -Sclerenchyma fibers (in the xylem, out of xylem) Stem anatomic structure a)Stem anatomy in Monocotyl plants (Closed collateral bundles) Sample: Zea mays b)Stem anatomy in Dicotyl plants (opened collateral bundles) Sample: Aristolochia sp. c)Bicolateral bundle Sample: Cucurbita pepo
11-Absorption system (absorption tissues) -Structure and functions Root absorption hairs, velamen radicum and haustaurium - Structure and functions of xylem tissue cells (xylem sclerenchyma, xylem parenchyma, trache and tracheid) - Structure and functions of phloem tissue cells (phloem sclerenchyma, phloem parenchyma, sieve tubes and companion cell) -Secretory system (secreted tissues and related structures) -Outer glands (hydathodes, glandular hairs and nectaries) -Inner glands (schizogenic, lisygenic, enzime storages, secretory channels, resin channels, laticifers) Wood Structure 1.Gymnospermae wood Sample: Pinus nigra 2.Angiospermae wood Sample: Tilia sp.
12-Motion tissue system (motion providing and tissues) -Passive motion tissues (flying hairs and tissues, swimming tissues and wings. -Active motion providing tissues (hygroscobic motion providing, structures providing motion with cohesion mechanism -Impuls accepting tissues -Root systems in plants (Primer, seconder and adventive roots) -Root anatomy (epiderm, cortex, endoderm, periskle, central cycle, pith) -Development ef latheral root and vasculer tissuse in root Leaf Anatomy 1.Gymnospermae leaf Sample: Pinus nigra 2.Angiospermae leaf (bifacial leaf) Sample: Helleborus sp.
13Secondary thickening in root -Function of root and role of rhizobium bacteria and mycorrhzian roots -Hypocothyl types and germination types according to hypocothyl in plants -Properties of stem -Primary and secondary structure of stem -Bordered layers between the cortex and central cylinder Flower and anatomy Sample: Rosa sp. Sample: Prunus sp.
14-Vascular tissues of stem -Secondary growth in stem and stem types (woody and herbaceous dicothyl stems in Gymnospermaes) -Function of stem -Leaf and parts, leaf types -Venation in leaf lamina -General leaf anatomy Fruit anatomy Sample: Triticum sp
15-Bifacial, equifacial and unifacial leaf types -Vascular tissues in plant -Leaf anatomy of Gymnospermae, Graminae, Dicothyl and Water plants -Differences in leaf anatomy according to different habitual conditions -Functions of leaf Exam
16Final Exam
Recommended or Required Reading
Vardar, Y., Gemici, Y., Tort, Nedret, Gemici, M., Bitki Anatomisi Dersleri “Yüksek Bitkilerin Genel Yapısı” -I- Hücre ve Dokular, Ege Üniv. Basımevi, Bornova-İzmir, 2006. OTHER BOOKS Evert, R.F. Esau’s Plant Anatomy. Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, Canada, (2006). Stahl-Biskup, E., Reichling, J., Anatomie und Histologie der Samenpflanzen. Deutscher Apotheker Verlag Stuttgart, (1998). Bozkurt, Y.A., Odun Anatomisi, İstanbul Üniversitesi Yayın No: 3652 Fakülte Yayın No: 415 ISBN 975-404-230-6, (1992). Yentür, S.; “Bitki Anatomisi” İ. Ü. Yayınları Sayı: 3808, ISBN: 975-404-351-5, (1995).
Planned Learning Activities and Teaching Methods
Activities are given in detail in the section of "Assessment Methods and Criteria" and "Workload Calculation"
Assessment Methods and Criteria
Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
End Of Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
Language of Instruction
Work Placement(s)
Workload Calculation
ActivitiesNumberTime (hours)Total Work Load (hours)
Attending Lectures14228
Report Preparation236
Report Presentation236
Project Preparation339
Self Study224
Individual Study for Mid term Examination11212
Individual Study for Final Examination11212
Contribution of Learning Outcomes to Programme Outcomes
* Contribution Level : 1 Very low 2 Low 3 Medium 4 High 5 Very High
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