Description of Individual Course Units
Course Unit CodeCourse Unit TitleType of Course UnitYear of StudySemesterNumber of ECTS Credits
Level of Course Unit
First Cycle
Objectives of the Course
Biotechnology is believed to be the technology of the 21st century. The main objective of the course is to make students understand the principles of biotechnology and fermentation. Under this scope, the wide application areas of biotechnology, principles of microbial nutrition, main steps of a biotechnological processes and fermentation systems will be mentioned throughout the lecture. Traditional food biotechnology applications such as acid and alcohol fermentations will also be mentioned. Alternatives of downstream processing options together with applications of change management will be discussed. Introduction of biological methods (aerobic and anaerobic) of effluent treatments will be mentioned. Some industrial-scale anaerobic (production of ethyl alcohol, lactic acid production) and aerobic (baker's yeast and the production of citric acid) applications of biotechnological processes will be introduced.
Name of Lecturer(s)
Prof. Dr. Yekta Göksungur; Prof.Dr.Hatice Kalkan Yıldırım
Learning Outcomes
1To learn the advantages of biotechnological processes over chemical processes.
2To learn the basic steps of a biotechnological process.
3To learn the reasons of microbial product accumulation and to learn microbial metabolism.
4To learn main metabolic pathways.
5To understand the structure and function of DNA molecule and to learn the basic principles of recombinant DNA technology.
6To learn the growth phases of microorganisms and the effect of these phases on product accumulation. To learn the basic fermentation systems.
7To learn the downstream processing of the the product. Understanding biological treatment processes of waste materials.
8To learn some industrial-scale anaerobic (production of ethyl alcohol, lactic acid production) and aerobic (baker's yeast and the production of citric acid) applications of biotechnology processes.
9To learn the definition of biotechnology and fermentation
10To learn the application areas of biotechnology.
Mode of Delivery
Face to Face
Prerequisites and co-requisities
Recommended Optional Programme Components
Course Contents
The definition of biotechnology and fermentation. The main applications of biotechnological processes. The comparison of biotechnological and chemical processes. The principles of microbial nutrition. Microbial metabolism, metabolic pathways, aerobiac and anaerobic respiration, fermentation, electron transport mechanism. The structure of DNA, recombinant DNA technology and it’s applications, polimerase chain reactions. The basic steps and flowsheet of biotechnological processes. Bioreactors used in fermentation processes. Batch, semi-continuous, continous and fed-batch fermentation systems. Acid and alcoholic fermentations; malt and beer production, wine production, vinegar production. Downstream processing of the the product. Biological treatment processes of waste materials. Some industrial-scale anaerobic (production of ethyl alcohol, lactic acid production) and aerobic (baker's yeast and the production of citric acid) applications of biotechnology processes.
Weekly Detailed Course Contents
1The definition of fermentation and biotechnology. The history of biotechnology. The main applications of biotechnological processes. The main differences among biotechnological and fermentation processes. The main elements of a biotechnological processing plant.Introduction of biotechnology laboratories
2Microbial metabolism and main metabolic pathways. Glycolysis, krebs cycle, oxidative phosphorilization, aerobic and anaerobic respiration, fermentation, lactic acid and alcohol fermentation.The introduction of winery pilot plant and the equipments useds in wine production
3The structure of DNA, recombinant DNA technology and its applications. Polimerase chain reaction.Pickle fermentation
4Microbial growth phases, the necessary conditions for product formation and growth of microorganisms. Principles of microbial nutrition.The necessary analyses in pickle production
5The flowchart of biotechnological processes, upstream and downstream processes. The formulation and preparation of industrial fermentation medium. The carbon and nitrogen sources used in bioprocesses.Molasses as fermentation substrate and pretreatment of beet molasses.
6The properties that are required for industrial cultures, culture collections, development of inocula for fermentation processes, aceptical inocullation procedures and starting of fermentation.Citric acid production using Aspergillus niger
7Oxygen transfer in aerobic processes, oxygen requirements of bioprocesses, oxygen transfer coefficient, factors affecting oxygen transfer in fermentation vessels. Basic types and principles of bioreactors.Design of biorectors.The determination of pH and acidity in fermentation samples and interpretation of acidity values.
9Fermentation systems, batch, semi-continous and continous system, batch feeding systemWine clarification experiment
10Beer production and main required equipments. Mashing: Determination of saccharification time
11Introduction of downstream processes in bioprocesses (characteristics of biological products). Pre-treatment a) heating / cooling; b) sedimentation; c) formation of foam (foam separation, foam flotation), flocculation and coagulation; precipitation. Methods of cell lysis: a) mechanical disruption - crushing in a solid-state, crushing forces in solution; b) non-mechanical disruption - physical methods (osmotic shock, freezing and thawing, pressure drop); - chemical methods; - enzymatic methods; - drying (liophilizasyon, solvent and drying, air drying).Picnometric determination of density, alcohol and real extract in beer
12Solid - liquid separation processes: a) filtration; b) mikrofiltasyon; c) centrifugation; d)centrifugal filtasyon; Concentration procedures: extraction, membrane separation techniques (ultrafiltasyon, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis). Purification procedures: a) chromatography (adsorption chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, gel filtasyonu, affinity chromatography, hydrophobic chromatography, distribution chromatography; b) elecrophorosesis. Finishing processes of products: drying, formulation.The determination of SO2 in wine. Determination of alcohol by ebulliometer.
13Introduction of effluent treatment: definitions (BOD, COD). Methods: a) physical methods, b) chemical methods, c) biological methods. Utilization of mixed cultures. Application of aerobic fermentation and different bioreactor types. Application ofanaerobic fermentation. Water purification systems. Evaluation of by-products – production of single cell protein, ethyl alcohol, organic acids, phenolic acids, aromatic compounds.Determination of volatile acidity in wine samples.
14Application of some industrial anaerobic biotechnological processes. Production of ethyl alcohol: the choice of substrate and microorganism, fermentation patterns, bioreactor types, downstream processing, by-products, problems and solution methods.Lactic acid production: substrate selection, characteristics of lactic acid bacteria, heterofermentatif and homofermetatif pathways, mass transfer, bioreactor types, production problems and solution.Acetyl methyl carbinol in vinegar
15Application of some industrial aerobic biotechnological processes. Production of baker's yeast: media options (molasses), S.cerevisiae properties, fermentation methods, bioreactor types and properties,downstream processing (drying), problems and solution methods. Citric acid production: media selection and preparatory procedures, A.niger properties, fermentation method, bioreactor types, purification, by-products, problems and solution methods.General review of laboratory practices
Recommended or Required Reading
Required Reading: 1. Demain, A. L., Solomon, N.A. (eds.). 1986. Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, American Society for Microbiology, Washington D.C., 466 pp. 2.Göksungur, Y, 2009, Reaction and Fermentation Kinetics in Food Engineering, Sidas Medya Ltd. Şti., İzmir, 143 sayfa 3. Glazer, A. N., Nikaido, H., “Microbial Biotechnology”, W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, (1995). 4. Pirt, S.J., “Principles of Microbe and Cell Cultivation”, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, (1985). 5.Doran, P.M.,1995. “Bioprocess Engineering Principles” , Elsevier Science and Technology Books, Sydney. Recommended Reading: 1. Bisswanger, H., 2002, Enzyme Kinetics, Principles and Methods, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, 255 pp. 2. Stanbury, P.F., Whitaker, A., Hall, S.J., 1995, Principles of Fermentation Technology, Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford, 357 pp. 3.Geankoplis,C.J.,2003.“Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles”, Pearson Education Ins., New Jersey. 4.Verrall, M.,1996. “Downstream Processing of Natural Products”, Wiley. 5.Telefoncu , A.,1995. “Biyoteknoloji”, Ege Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Yayınları,No.152 6.Hutkins, R.W.,2006.”Microbiology and Technology of Fermented Foods”,Blackwel Publishing, Iowa.
Planned Learning Activities and Teaching Methods
Activities are given in detail in the section of "Assessment Methods and Criteria" and "Workload Calculation"
Assessment Methods and Criteria
Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
End Of Term (or Year) Learning ActivitiesQuantityWeight
Language of Instruction
Work Placement(s)
Workload Calculation
ActivitiesNumberTime (hours)Total Work Load (hours)
Midterm Examination122
Final Examination133
Attending Lectures14228
Self Study15050
Contribution of Learning Outcomes to Programme Outcomes
LO2   3           
LO3  54           
LO43       4      
LO6 5 3           
LO7   4    3      
LO8        4   4  
LO9  4     5      
* Contribution Level : 1 Very low 2 Low 3 Medium 4 High 5 Very High
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